Wat is koolhydraten
Robert hooke, ole borch, mikhail Lomonosov, and pierre bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element. This may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, which was then the favored explanation of those processes. Established in 1667 by the german diarree alchemist. Becher, one part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx. The fact that a substance like wood gains overall weight in burning was hidden by the buoyancy of the combustion products. Hydraat, in chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood, in organic chemistry, a hydrate is a compound formed by the addition of water or its elements to another molecule. A molecule of water may be eliminated, for example by the action of sulfuric acid, another example is chloral hydrate, ccl3CH2, which can be formed by reaction of water with chloral, ccl3CHO. Many organic molecules, as well as molecules, form crystals that incorporate water into the crystalline structure without chemical alteration of the organic molecule. The sugar trehalose, for example, exists in both a form and as a dihydrate. Protein crystals commonly have as much as 50 water content, molecules are also labeled as hydrates for historical reasons not covered above. Glucose, c6H12O6, was thought of as C66 and described as a carbohydrate.
Koolhydraten - english translation - dutch-English dictionary
This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes. 8 of the earths atmosphere, additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the earths crust. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, conversely, oxygen is continuously replenished by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is too reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. Another form of oxygen, ozone, strongly absorbs ultraviolet uvb radiation, but ozone is a pollutant near the surface where it misselijk is a by-product of smog. At low earth orbit altitudes, sufficient atomic oxygen is present to cause corrosion of spacecraft, the name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century bce greek writer on mechanics, Philo of byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle, philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries later leonardo da vinci built on Philos work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration, Oxygen was discovered by the polish alchemist Sendivogius, who considered it the philosophers stone. In the late 17th century, robert boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion, English chemist John mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus. From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both respiration and combustion, mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, and inferred that the nitroaereus must have kind combined with. Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract de respiratione.
design of pipelines and storage. Hydrogen gas is flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4 and 75 by volume. The enthalpy of combustion is 286 kJ/mol,2 H2 O2 2 H2O 572 kj hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air in concentrations from 474, the explosive reactions may be triggered by spark, heat, or sunlight. The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 c, the detection of a burning hydrogen leak may require a flame detector, such leaks can be very dangerous. Hydrogen flames in other conditions are blue, resembling blue natural gas flames, the destruction of the hindenburg airship was a notorious example of hydrogen combustion and the cause is still debated. The visible orange flames in that incident were the result of a mixture of hydrogen to oxygen combined with carbon compounds from the airship skin. H2 reacts with every oxidizing element, the ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom.6 ev, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the bohr model of the atom, however, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. The most complicated treatments allow for the effects of special relativity. Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol o and atomic number. It is a member of the group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen, at standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula.
Koolhydraten - english translation linguee
Carbons covalent radii are normally taken.2 pm,66.7 pm and.3 pm, although these may vary depending on coordination number, in general, covalent radius decreases with lower coordination number and higher bond order. Carbon compounds form the basis of all life on Earth. Waterstof (element hydrogen haar is a chemical element with chemical symbol h and atomic number. With a standard weight of circa.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium, has one proton, the universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds. Hydrogen plays an important role in acidbase reactions because most acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, hydrogen can take the form of a charge when it is known as a hydride. The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century by the reaction of acids on metals. Industrial production is mainly from steam reforming natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive methods such as the electrolysis of water.
Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper, while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known, graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials, all carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen, the most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is 4, while 2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil. For this reason, carbon has often referred to as the king of the elements. The allotropes of carbon graphite, one of the softest known substances, and diamond. It bonds readily with other small atoms including other carbon atoms, carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds. Carbon also has the highest sublimation point of all elements, although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature. Carbon is the element, with a ground-state electron configuration of 1s22s22p2. Its first four ionisation energies,1086.5,2352.6,4620.7 kJ/mol, are higher than those of the heavier group 14 elements.
Nutrition polysaccharides are common sources of energy, many organisms can easily break down starches into glucose, however, most organisms cannot metabolize cellulose or other polysaccharides like chitin and arabinoxylans. These carbohydrate types can be metabolized by bacteria and protists. Ruminants and termites, for example, use microorganisms to process cellulose, even though these complex carbohydrates are not very digestible, they provide important dietary elements for humans. Called dietary fiber, these carbohydrates enhance digestion among other benefits, the main action of dietary fiber is to change the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract, and to change how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed. Koolstof, carbon is a chemical element with symbol c and atomic number. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds, three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity, carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the earths crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is the second most abundant element in the body by mass after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon, the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form, for example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent.
What is koolhydraten - sesli sözlükExamples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating hardloop unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water, natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula n where n is three or more. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde, polysaccharides, meanwhile, have a general formula of Cxy where x is usually a large number between 2When the repeating units in the backbone are six-carbon monosaccharides, as is often the case, the general formula simplifies. Polysaccharides are an important class of biological polymers and their function in living organisms is usually either structure- or storage-related. Starch is used as a polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amylose and the branched amylopectin. In animals, the structurally similar glucose polymer is the more densely branched glycogen, glycogens properties allow it to be metabolized more quickly, which suits the active lives of moving animals. Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides, cellulose is used in the cell walls of plants and other organisms, and is said to be the most abundant organic molecule on Earth. It has many such as a significant role in the paper and textile industries, and is used as a feedstock for the production of rayon, cellulose acetate, celluloid. Chitin has a structure, but has nitrogen-containing side branches. It is found in arthropod exoskeletons and in the walls of some fungi. It also has multiple uses, including surgical threads, polysaccharides also include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, arabinoxylan, mannan, fucoidan and galactomannan.
Production of rayon from cellulose began in the 1890s and cellophane was invented in 1912, hermann Staudinger determined the polymer schoonmaken structure of cellulose in 1920. The compound was first chemically synthesized in 1992, by kobayashi, cellulose has no taste, is odorless, is hydrophilic with the contact angle of 2030 degrees, is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, is chiral and is biodegradable. It was shown to melt at 4it can be broken down chemically into its glucose units by treating it with concentrated mineral acids at high temperature. Cellulose is derived from D-glucose units, which condense through β-glycosidic bonds and this linkage motif contrasts with that for α-glycosidic bonds present in starch and glycogen. This confers tensile strength in cell walls, where cellulose microfibrils are meshed into a polysaccharide matrix, compared to starch, cellulose is also much more crystalline. Whereas starch undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition when heated beyond 6070 c in water, cellulose requires a temperature of 320 c, several different crystalline structures of cellulose are known, corresponding to the location of hydrogen bonds between and within strands. Natural cellulose is cellulose i, with structures iα and iβ, cellulose produced by bacteria and algae is enriched in iα while cellulose of higher plants consists mainly. Cellulose in regenerated cellulose fibers is cellulose ii, the conversion of cellulose i to cellulose ii is irreversible, suggesting that cellulose i is metastable and cellulose ii is stable. With various chemical treatments it is possible to produce the structures cellulose iii, many properties of cellulose depend on its chain length or degree of polymerization, the number of glucose units that make up one polymer molecule. Polysacharide, they range in structure from linear to highly branched.
Koolhydraten dieet afvallen koolhydraten
So, for example, h4H is pentose, h3H is pentulose, two monosaccharides with equivalent molecular graphs may still be distinct stereoisomers, whose molecules differ in the three-dimensional arrangement of the bonds of certain atoms. This happens only if the molecule contains a center, specifically a carbon atom that is chiral. Cellulose, cellulose is an organic compound with the formula n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β linked D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important structural component of the cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms, cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90, that of wood is 4050, cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities vakantie are converted into a variety of derivative products such as cellophane. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton, some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. In humans, cellulose acts as a bulking agent for feces and is often referred to as a dietary fiber. Cellulose was discovered in 1838 by the French chemist Anselme payen, cellulose was used to produce the first successful thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, by hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870.
For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but have different physical structures and chemical properties, with few exceptions, monosaccharides have this chemical formula, cxy, where conventionally. Monosaccharides can be classified by the notariskosten x of carbon atoms they contain, triose tetrose, pentose, hexose, heptose. The most important monosaccharide, glucose, is a hexose, examples of heptoses include the ketoses mannoheptulose and sedoheptulose. Monosaccharides with eight or more carbons are rarely observed as they are quite unstable, in aqueous solutions monosaccharides exist as rings. Simple monosaccharides have a linear and unbranched carbon skeleton with one carbonyl functional group, therefore, the molecular structure of a simple monosaccharide can be written as HnmH, where n 1 m x, so that its elemental formula is CxH2xOx. By convention, the atoms are numbered from 1 to x along the backbone. If the carbonyl is at position 1, the molecule begins with a formyl group h and is technically an aldehyde, in that case, the compound is termed an aldose. Otherwise, the molecule has a group, a carbonyl between two carbons, then it is formally a ketone, and is termed a ketose. Ketoses of biological interest usually have the carbonyl at position 2, the various classifications above can be combined, resulting in names such as aldohexose and ketotriose. A more general nomenclature for open-chain monosaccharides combines a greek prefix to indicate the number of carbons with the suffixes -ose for aldoses, in the latter case, if the carbonyl is not at position 2, its position is then indicated by a numeric infix.
Snel koolydraten tellen voor een koolhydraatarm dieet
Ieder van de groep van organische verbindingen bestaande uit koolstof, waterstof en zuurstof, suikers, zetmelen en celluloses inbegrepen. Een bepaald type verbinding van koolstof-, waterstof- en zuurstofatomen. Op de speciale pagina over diabetes vind je alles over diabetes en koolhydraten. Afvallen met dutch Aktins dieet, southbeach dieet? Belangrijke informatie over deze koolhydraatarme diëten en andere diëtenvind je hier. Aalbessen 100 gr 5 24 0 aalbessen 100 gr 5 24 0 aardappelen 100 gr 18,6 24 0 aardappelkroket 100 gr 28,2 356 12 aardappelpuree 100 gr aardappelsoesje 100 gr 16,4 188 11,2 aardappelzetmeel 1 eetlepel 8 30 0 aardbeien 100 gr 5. Monosacharide, monosaccharides, also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates. They are fundamental units of carbohydrates and cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler compounds. The general formula biologische is CnH 2nOn and they are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, and crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste, examples of monosaccharides include glucose, fructose and galactose. Monosaccharides are the blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides. Further, each carbon atom that supports a group is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms.